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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, in the late 1890s the English spelling of the cuisinic expression began to appear in North American print, and shortly thereafter, "kimchi" as a loanword appeared with staying power in Merriam-Webster's Dictionary.
Nowadays the word [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'dictionary' is widespread again, replacing the Russian loanword [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is why [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is not included in the dictionary of rare words.
1) Some scholars propose an inner Semitic etymology, others see it as a loanword from either Greek [pi][rho]opvoo[zeta]; 'careful, prudent' or [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; 'supervisor, administrator', and still others remain agnostic about its origin.
The Old French word from which the English was borrowed, herberge, was itself a loanword from Frankish, a Germanic language of Gaul.
A non-adapted loanword is a word or multi-word unit "without or with minor formal and semantic integration, so that it remains recognizably English in the RL" (Furiassi et al.
In language-contact studies, special attention has been devoted to lexical borrowing, more specifically to loanword accommodation (see, among others, Brown 1999, Winter-Froemel 2008, Haspelmath & Tadmor 2009, Thomason & Kaufman 1988, Thomason 2014).
All words can be found in Webster's Tenth Collegiate except for qi, a Chinese loanword meaning 'physical life-force'.
The former is a modified form of Arabic word Imam and the latter is a loanword from Persian, the original being Akhund.
Loanword typology: Steps toward a systematic cross-linguistic study of lexical borrowability.
65) Even when using the word Proklamasi, for the first decade or so of independence this term often had to be explained in context with another word--usually an Arabic loanword.
Finally, even though different levels of analysis are considered as a means of determining the degree of integration of Anglicisms in Armenian, no comprehensive index is provided to allow the reader to assess the different degrees of integration undergone by each loanword.
In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004).