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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
They cover the historical background of the Asia Minor dialects; agglutinative noun inflection in Cappadocian; two Turkish suffixes in Pharasoit: constraints against phrasal bases; the morphology of Silliot: paradigmatic defectiveness, paradigmatic leveling; and affix pleonasm; adverbial constructions in a dialectical context: a case study from Pontic; the Smyrna dialect: loanword adaptation in a multilingual setting; affixoids and verb borrowing in Aivaliot morphology; subtractive imperative forms in Bithynian Greek; morphological innovations in Propontis Tsakonian; and the Greek of Ottoman-era Adrianoupolis.
The loanword snob 'snob' takes either the suffix -it (1a) or -a (1b), and both forms are found in similar contexts.
In addition, it should be noted that Aramaic *samu'at- is not a loanword from Akkadian but has a clear inner Aramaic etymology: it is derived from the root sm' "to hear" according to the pattern *qa0-, which can form nouns with passive semantics (Fox 2003: 197-202), combined with the feminine ending *-at-, which can form abstracts, i.e., "that which was heard" > "news."
Nowadays the word [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'dictionary' is widespread again, replacing the Russian loanword [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is why [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is not included in the dictionary of rare words.
E.g., the English word "apron" was an erroneous borrowing from the Middle-French word "naperon," meaning "a piece of cloth." Because the French word was always used together with the French indefinite article "un" ("a or an"), its pragmatic lexical appearance in real use became "un" naperon" in the French language, which, however, was literally translated into English as "a napron," which as time went by gradually came to be misspelled or mistyped as "an apron." Because of the confusion of the French indefinite article and that of its English counterpart, the correct French loanword "napron" was cast into oblivion, whereas the false derivative "apron" came into existence for good (Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Electronic Dictionary).
The Old French word from which the English was borrowed, herberge, was itself a loanword from Frankish, a Germanic language of Gaul.
The transition of the non-adapted loanword party (see above) is of a curious nature.
All words can be found in Webster's Tenth Collegiate except for qi, a Chinese loanword meaning 'physical life-force'.
Loanword typology: Steps toward a systematic cross-linguistic study of lexical borrowability.
These words could be written with a final hamza (common especially if the word was an Arabic loanword originally employing a hamza, but also as with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or bapa' for father), with a final 'qaf ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) to symbolise the glottal stop (thus, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or bapaq for father) or without any final letter after the vowel (thus, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or bapa for father).
In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004).
Ha, it takes more than a pretentious loanword to fool me.