Warming the local anaesthetic agent to body temperature or up to 40C to 54.4C (104F-130F) has been found to be a simple, practical and inexpensive option for reduction of paindue to local anaesthetic infiltration.2Sultan in 1997 after a reviewof a total of 758 papers published to study the impact of warming the local anesthetic
, selected 11 studies that presented the best evidence, and concluded that warming significantly decreases the pain on injection.3Hogan et al.4in 2011published the results of a systematic review and metaanalysis based on 18 studies with 831 patients.
Mulroy and other investigators have now reported the significant impact of the route of administration of local anesthetics
on an increasing prevalence rates of local anesthetic
systemic toxicity reactions.11-14 The prevalence of local anesthetic
systemic toxicity in epidural anesthetics ranged from 1.
The perfusion of local anesthetic
was detained in all the cases.
The addition of opioids such as meperidine, fentanyl and morphine have provided effective and long lasting anaesthesia and analgesia.2 Tramadol, a synthetic 4phenyl-piperidine analog of codeine with its mu-receptor agonistic activity has central analgesic effects and also has peripheral local anesthetic
properties that led to its use as an adjunct in peripheral nerve blocks.9
Subjects' self reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anesthetic
administration during access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation.
All the 100 children received both pre cooling and local anesthetic
gel application before infiltration anesthesia.
injections are effective for treatment and diagnosis of joint pain, and are commonly used in the clinic, both pre- and postoperatively.
Researchers have devised a novel technique in which the potent painkiller saxitoxin is "packaged" inside specially designed fat-based particles called liposomes to produce a local anesthetic
capable of blocking pain for up to a week following a single injection.
This may be due to the fact that all of the patients were pregnant and the high-pressure injection of the local anesthetic
caused subsequent local edema and minor bleeding.
Of the 21 responders, 9 had been injected with only the local anesthetic
; of those patients, 8 had avoided surgery during the intervening years.
I proceeded to give her an injection of local anesthetic
, and, leaving her in the company of my chairside assistant, walked back to my private office to return the phone messages that were sitting on my desk.
"The form also noted that Ma was given general anesthesia--which put her to sleep--instead of the local anesthetic
usually used for early-term abortions, according to Ma's attorney Weng Weihua,"