Austin directly--or Searle, or speech-act theory, or the performative and the constatee or the locutionary
, illocutionary, and perlocutionary--his project extends Austin's (as does much of Fish's 1970s scholarship).
It is accepted in linguistics that a speech act can have perlocutionary thrust, in that it requests a response that available in its "semantics", as well as locutionary
status as "content".
Speech acts are, according to Austin, "[...] functional units of communication that have prepositional or locutionary
meaning (the literal meaning of the utterance), illocutionary meaning (the social function of the utterance), and perlocutionary force (the effect produced by the utterance in a given context (Austin, 1962, in Cohen, 1996: 384).
Austin, "A locutionary
act has to do with the simple act of a speaker saying something, i.e.
act," (2) the "perlocutionary act," and
"S issuing L to H is to prevent T so that E will not occur." (S) is the Federal Government, the authority issuing out warning (performing the locutionary
The former is called a locutionary
act, and the latter an illocutionary force.
Word of Starace's disposizione soon spread, but individual adherence to the locutionary
pronoun "voi" was not immediate.
Austin indicated, an utterance can have locutionary
, illocutionary, and perlocutionary effects.
(23.) One aspect of the potential deficiency of any written text as compared with an oral one, which always provides a context, is described by David Olson as: "writing readily represents the locutionary
act, leaving illocutionary force underspecified." Olson, The World on Paper: The Conceptual and Cognitive Implications of Writing and Reading (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
Through the locutionary
act (utterance) of singing, the chorus commits the illocutionary actions (discursive operations) of criticizing and ridiculing, by which they complete the perlocutionary acts (consequential actions) of insulting, offending, and dishonoring Cupido.
While, on one level, speaking or writing is already an action (a locutionary
act), on another level, we also perform actions in saying something (an illocutionary act) or by--or in consequence of--saying something (a perlocutionary act).