And the features of direct democracy that can break this stranglehold come at a risk to minorities, who have no opportunity to bargain and logroll
to protect their interests.
Those who give the awards exchange ballots among each other's categories, provide a pasha's fortune to publicity flak-providers, logroll
, solicit and hustle shamelessly to pit every talent against every other talent, making it a transparent and debased three-card Monte seam.
Whether in 1933 or today, using a novel parliamentary practice in order to logroll
votes undoubtedly can be highly politically useful and quite conducive to the efficient disposition of legislation in the House.
When we logroll
them onto their side we check their pressure areas, feel their skin under our hands: Are they hot, dry, cold, clammy?
Assuming legislators logroll
with fellow members to ensure passage of pet projects until the gains from trade are exhausted (a phenomenon known as universalism), spending will exceed the optimal level.
If legislators logroll
and defer to each other, then government spending is an increasing function of n.
In 1969, Judy became a member of the first logrolling school for children; learned to logroll
on water when she was 12; won her first World title at 16; and retired from competition three years ago at age 43.
Hence, in statutes like the Line Item Veto Act (173) and recent base closure acts, (174) Congress seems to be saying "stop me before I logroll
again." Congress may be tying its own hands out of a sense that voters would prefer to forgo their slice of pork if other voters will do the same.
In such cases, legislatures are expected to generate a high degree of unanimity in the form of a universal logroll
.(17) Each member of the legislature will propose generous protective measures for industries in his or her own district without accounting for the costs they impose on consumers elsewhere.
This success may be due in part to their ability to logroll
and reframe (Putnam and Holmer, 1992; Tutzauer, 1992), through which they present and represent plausible, alternative courses of action.
It is important to logroll
a patient with a halo vest, collar, etc., every two to three hours to relieve prolonged pressure to vulnerable body parts and preserve integrity of the skin.
Negotiators hoped that by 1992 they had finally found an equilibrium, a logroll
sufficiently inclusive to survive referral to the people.