The topics she investigates, including "weight, beauty, dieting and 'lookism
' (the idea that a person is judged solely by looks)," are issues that "can be found in every subset of YA literature" (Younger 2009, xvi).
These cultural tendencies have accelerated the prevalence of lookism
defined as "prejudice on the grounds of appearance," (Ayto, 1999, p.
KBS2's reality show "The Return of Superman" has sparked a controversy for promoting "lookism
" to market a four-year-old biracial girl on Aug.
A look at 'lookism
': A critical analysis of teachers' expectations based on student appearance.
Williams and Lorien Bourne reveals the complex workings of the level, upward, and downward gazes, and reveals how gender, sexuality, race, physical ability, class, and lookism
influenced the shaping of those optics.
Adolescent girls in particular are negatively affected by lookism
or social judgments made about how well or poorly individuals meet cultural standards for physical attractiveness.
In my research I have catalogued a total of twenty-nine: sex/gender, race, skin colour, ethnicity, nationality, culture, tradition and development, language, religion, ancestry, sexual orientation, sexual practices, age, able-bodiedness, lookism
, caste, socio-economic class, property ownership, skills, geographic location, urbanicity, sedantariness, virtuality (cyberspace) and transnationality; migrant, indigenous, refugee or displaced person status, health status, HIV/AIDS, living in a war zone or under foreign occupation and ecology (one's relationship with nature) also feature in the matrix.
So how is a child to grapple with the savage social hierarchy of "lookism
" that usually begins in the playground, if adults are so clumsy about it?
She found "lookaphobia, lookism
, and lookists" to be commonplace, and it has been a fight for her to be taken seriously.
Global patriarchy and the marketplace, meanwhile, have homogenized women through "Lookism
." Croatia itself is a circus presided over by men stuck in the anal phase, and the world is run by "bad pupils" like them.
When anti-feminists make the case that there is now a "level playing field" for women, and that any gender gap in achievement and pay reflects women's own choices, they should consider what used to be called "lookism
Former Crimewatch presenter Nick Ross said, during an Edinburgh TV festival session on ageism in the media: "Like it or not TV is a lookism