Adamkin, "Nutrition management of the very low-birth-weight infant
Maternal psychological distress and parenting stress after the birth of a very low-birth-weight infant
. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 281:799-805.
(1) Intervention participants had 50% lower odds than controls of reporting second-hand smoke exposure before delivery, as well as reduced odds of having a very low-birth-weight infant
or a very preterm delivery All trial participants reported that they did not smoke during pregnancy, and this report was corroborated for most by a test that detects a biomarker of tobacco exposure in saliva; results for this subgroup were similar to those for the overall sample.
We will then review the literature and evaluate what is best for both mother and baby when delivery of an extremely low-birth-weight infant
The material is organized around clinical problems in seven sections dealing with general consideration, the fetal patient, transition and stabilization, the low-birth-weight infant
, the newborn infant, pharmacology, and post-nursery considerations.
Using the approach suggested by Wartenberg and Northridge (1991) for calculating an odds ratio, females who receive no prenatal care are 2.68 times more likely to give birth to a low-birth-weight infant
(one weighing less than 2,500 grams) than females who receive at least some care.
Immigrant women's risk of having a low-birth-weight infant
is more closely related to their country of origin than to the characteristics of their new neighborhood, according to a study of recent immigrants to Canada.
We used birth registry data without personal identifiers from the New York State Vital Statistics (New York State Department of Health 1994-2000) to test the hypothesis that living in a zip code that contains or abuts a PCB-contaminated site is a risk factor for giving birth to a low-/very low-birth-weight infant
. Although zip code of residence is a very inexact indicator of exposure, some studies have shown that residential proximity to contaminated sites increases risk of several different diseases (Carpenter et al.
The likelihood of having a preterm birth or a low-birth-weight infant
are also positively associated with the number of cigarettes smoked daily.
TAMPA, FLA -- Decreased parasympathetic activity in low-birth-weight infant
boys may explain their heightened risk for hyperactivity at age 30 months.
(1) Overall, 13% of women who gave birth during the course of the study delivered a low-birth-weight infant
, but the proportion was significantly elevated among those who reported a variety of stressors.
Nine percent had had a low-birth-weight infant
. Fifty-seven percent of the women breastfed at all during the follow-up period; 36% of this group breast-fed for at least six months.