Functional effects of lymphotoxin
on crushed peripheral nerve.
Etanercept (ETN) is a dimeric, human recombinant fusion protein that binds specifically to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin
, inhibiting their interaction with cell surface receptors (3, 4).
MHC class II, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and lymphotoxin
alpha gene haplotype associations with serological subsets of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Tumor necrosis factor [alpha] and lymphotoxin
[alpha] haplotypes in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.
The apparent absence of lymphotoxin
genes might explain the lack of lymph nodes in hens, because these genes are crucial to lymph node formation in mammals (KAISER, 2012).
Karin, "B-cell-derived lymphotoxin
promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer," Nature, vol.
Interestingly, the treatment of immunotherapy-resistant Ag104Ld tumors with Ab-LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxin
)-based therapy can activate the lymphotoxin
[beta] receptor (LT[beta]R) signaling specifically in tumor cells which is leading to enhanced secretion of multiple chemokines.
Sakaguchi et al., "Human lymphotoxin
and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization," Nucleic Acids Research, vol.
 have shown that membrane-bound lymphotoxin
and the chemokine receptor CXCR are involved in this process and antagonizing these receptors ameliorates NLRP3-independent EAE.
examined TNF-[alpha], IL-2, IFN-[gamma], IL-6, IL-1[beta], and lymphotoxin
levels in the serum of 31 patients with oral lichen planus, and they found only TNF-[alpha] and IL-6 levels higher in patients compared to the control group (12).