adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid, R.Soc.
They tie themselves in-and slip through-a knot to escape from attack, to rid themselves of their mucous secretions and other debris on the body, and in macrophagous
feeding (Adam, 1960; Stra-han, 1963; Martini, 1998; Zintzen et al., 2011).
leeches from the Gusinoe area in accordance with their generic belonging clustered within the Erpobdellidae, in close relation to E.
zillii has been variously classified as plankton feeders, higher plant and algae feeders or macrophagous
as well as mud suckers (Fagade, 1971; Brown and Colgan, 1984; Negassa and Getahun, 2004).
By contrast the literature on leeches as macrophagous
predators of frog spawn, though relatively small, has been largely neglected or omitted entirely from consideration in reviews of both leech and amphibian biology (Duellman and Trueb 1986; Govedich 2001; Toledo 2005; Romano and Di Cerbo 2007).
The Cyclobdellidae and Semiscolecidae are freshwater macrophagous
leeches (Ringuelet, 1985; Sawyer, 1986).
229 Browsers, detritivores, and macrophagous
organisms all live in the intertidal zone, as in this benthic community on the coast of the Pacific Ocean (Point Lobos, California).
Taghon) or (2) juveniles forage in a more macrophagous
mode where only the higher quality organic components are ingested (i.e., a feeding mode that is more similar to that of many permanent meiofauna than to that of deposit-feeding macrofauna).
Similar differentiation has repeatedly been associated with differences in feeding ecology and performance in a variety of fishes; fish with larger eyes and more gill rakers are planktivorous while those with fewer gill rakers and longer jaws tend to be macrophagous
and often piscivorous (salmonids: Bodaly 1979, Gardner et al.