legislative districts that were malapportioned
to over-represent rural
Because there are almost twenty times more municipalities than there are cities, the funds are malapportioned
320) Nor would this be a benign preeminence: Because the Senate would be malapportioned
and relatively remote from the people, it would have little "sympathy" with them or knowledge about them.
Another factor is that the House is malapportioned
since each state is entitled to one member even though a perfectly proportional formula would assign less than one member to the smallest states.
Not surprisingly, we find that the LDP benefited significantly from malapportioned
rural districts, generating an average vote boost of 2.
State legislators in places like Tennessee and Alabama had no incentive to redraw state lines, notwithstanding the enormous population shifts that had occurred, because those state legislators benefitted from malapportioned
Given the malapportioned
distribution of seats in geographically determined constituencies, the factor in determining the makeup of the Parliament elected in 1989 was the fact that voters were able to cast multiple votes under an open-list plurality system .
Conceding that Strauss is right that the original understanding of the Constitution compelling those results, (48) however, would not mean that discrimination, malapportioned
legislatures, or what have you would be fixed in the Constitution.
The judges said they were drawing maps for two reasons - the current maps are malapportioned
and don't reflect the results of the 2010 census, and the Legislature's maps have not been approved by a federal panel in Washington D.
cities, the Japanese Diet became increasingly malapportioned
, and this
Consider just how malapportioned
the Senate is: The ratio of over-representation of the least populous state--Wyoming--to the most populous state--California--is 7o to 1.
85) In the absence of constitutional constraints, states maintained malapportioned
districts to protect incumbents and empower minority voters, particularly rural voters.