Neuroimaging studies indicate the presence of damage in diencephalic subcortical structures (thalamus, cerebellum, mammillary
bodies) and cortical structures (frontal, parietal and cingulate).
The ventral part of the nucleus also sends fibers through the medial forebrain bundle to the medial preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas, to the lateral hypothalamic area and the dorsomedial nucleus, to the mammillary
body (including the supramammillary region), and the ventral tegmental area.
In phenotype T2, spongiform degeneration affected predominantly subcortical structures over neocortical regions, especially the hypothalamus with the apparent exclusion of the mammillary
bodies (Figure 1, column T2, row iii).
Symmetric alterations in the medial thalami, mammillary
bodies, periaqueductal region and tectal plate are the common typical lesions.
A lumbar puncture and an electroencephalogram were also considered but were not performed because the MRI results revealed bilateral enhancement of the mammillary
bodies and mild signal hyperintensity, thus confirming a diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS).
Prolactin is described as a final diversification factor for mammillary
epithelial cells and messenger in breast neoplasm cells growth and survival.
1 case (57/m) mesencephalon, anterior commissure, mammillary
Postoperative MRI demonstrated a residual enhancing suprasellar component with improved mass effect on the floor of the third ventricle, mammillary
bodies, and optic chiasm, as well as near-complete resolution of the edema involving the bilateral optic tracts (Figure 4).
Brain structures that displayed reactivity to the Arc antibody included the brain stem (LX; Figure 1), the internal cellular layer (ICL) of the olfactory bulb (Figure 1B), the dorsal and ventral regions of the telencephalon (Figure 1B), the periventricular granular zone (PGZ; Figure 1D), the optic tectum (TeO; Figure 1D), the hypothalamus and associated mammillary
bodies (Figure 1E), the habenula (Ha; Figure 1F), the periventricular pretectal nucleus (PPv; Figure 1G), and the cerebellum (Figure 1H).
In the study of fornix stimulation in AD patients, volume changes of fornix and mammillary
bodies were highly correlated with hippocampal volume change after fornix stimulation, which strongly suggests the critical role of Papez circuit in memory function regulation.
Supratentorial structures adjacent to the plane of the incisura but ventral to the midbrain include the tuber cinereum and the mammillary
AG exhibited hypermetabolism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral and midline nucleus group of the dorsal thalamus, mammillary
, supraoptic, and tuberal regions of the hypothalamus, cerebral peduncle, midbrain tegmentum, and pontine tegmentum after 4 weeks (Table 3 and Figure 3(b)).