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The first thinker who is known to have posed questions about the origin, causes and sense of manifestational world attempting to find a rational answer was Thales of Miletus, man with great practical gift which is listed among seven sages by Greek tradition.
They continued their work there and founded many famous philosophical schools which questioned laws and sense of manifestational and non-manifestational world.
Peak of education was in philosophy and alienating disciples from variability of manifestational world and their directing to the unchangeable and important hiding behind, to the essence, and understanding general data and regularities, training for critical and rational thinking and understanding so that people may learn how to think critically by using their reason.