Because the intrinsic adherence of spirocysts ([i.sub.s]) is consistently very low relative to the values of mastigophore nematocysts (i.e., [i.sub.m] [much greater than] [i.sub.s]), the values of [i.sub.s] do not significantly contribute to the measured adhesive force (Thorington and Hessinger, 1996).
In essence, after being used to measure adhesive force, the gelatin coating of the probe tips was enzymatically digested to release the discharged mastigophore nematocysts.
3B), and 1.2 [micro]m (microbasic mastigophore
in Godknecht and Tardent, 1988: fig.
Only microbasic mastigophore
nematocysts were observed in this species.
Flabellina verrucosa from the southern Gulf of Maine responded to both Crossaster papposus and Tautogolabrus adspersus by increasing incorporation of one type of penetrating nematocyst, the microbasic mastigophore
. In cnidarians, this nematocyst has been suggested to be an effective defense against predation by the nudibranch Cratena pilata (Kepner, 1943); when incorporated by a nudibranch, it may also be effective against a diverse suite of predators.
In the tentacles of 2-4-h-old larvae four types of nematocytes, namely atrichous isorhiza (AI), stenotele (S), desmoneme (D), and microbasic mastigophore
(MM), were observed.
Specifically, adhesive force, as measured from sea anemone tentacles, is the sum of contributions arising from the stickiness of the tentacle mucus to the target ([S.sub.t]) and the product of the number of cnidae (mastigophore
nematocysts, [n.sub.m], and spirocysts, [n.sub.s]) discharging onto the target and their intrinsic adherence (mastigophore
nematocysts, [i.sub.m], and spirocysts, [i.sub.s]) (Thorington and Hessinger, 1996):
After being used to measure adhesive force, the gelatin coating of the probe tips are enzymatically digested to release the discharged mastigophore
Nematocysts of one type: small microbasic mastigophores
, dimensions 6-7 [micro]m X 1.5-2 [micro]m (n = 10, undischarged capsules).
Lovenella gracilis is equipped with microbasic mastigophores
(Calder 1971), which can penetrate animal tissues and inject venom (Mariscal 1974, Purcell & Mills 1988).
quadrumanus consists of three types of nematocysts, isorhizas (ovoid and ellipsoid), microbasic euryteles and microbasic mastigophores
(Calder & Peters, 1975; Carrette et al., 2002; Gershwin, 2006a).
Nematocyst compliment comprising isorhizas about 5.9-6.5 x 1.5-1.9 [micron]m and microbasic mastigophores
of three distinct sizes; (i) small 6.3-8.0 x 1.9-2.5 [micron]m; (ii) medium 8.5-9.3 x 2.8-3.2 [micron]m; and (iii) large 13.6-16.8 x 3.3-4.1 [micron]m.