The mathematical expectation
of the number of children of the families, whose final child is a boy for the first time, is equal to 2.
11] is microstress [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] where mathematical expectation
He explains how mathematical expectation
is governed by the laws of chance, creating a paradox and contradictions associated with applications of the concept.
Testing the hypothesis of equality of mathematical expectation
Even apart from the instability due to speculation, there is the instability due to the characteristic of human nature that a large proportion of our positive activities depend on spontaneous optimism rather than on a mathematical expectation
, whether moral or hedonistic or economic.
stands for the mathematical expectation
and the superscript * for the complex conjugate.
The superscript T denotes transposition of a matrix, the operator E[x] denotes mathematical expectation
, and tr[x] stands for trace of a matrix.
If one is offered an equal [50:50] chance of getting 0 or 20,000 ducats, the mathematical expectation
theory yields a value of: 0.
Before attempting this book, however, readers should be familiar with, among other things, the "core terms and concepts of statistical theory--moments, mathematical expectation
, probability limits, and asymptotic distributions.
where E(t) is the mathematical expectation
of the load,
The gist of the method chosen is in the analysis of profit statistics observed for a number of time periods, magnitude and frequency of certain economic return; probability of a certain outcome, mathematical expectation
, standard deviation are assessed, and the most probable future forecast is made (in our example, calculation is based on monthly profit of an enterprise (in US dollars) in the "f" period from January 2003 till December 2006 f = 48))
b] is a random variable with Poisson distribution with intensity b, defined on a probability space ([OMEGA], P), E denoting the mathematical expectation