The mediastinal Mullerian cyst is a recently established type of mediastinal cyst
, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal cysts
located in the paravertebral space of the posterior mediastinum in perimenopausal women or even in young women that are obese or have a previous gynecological history or hormonal abnormalities.
Likewise, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mediastinal cyst
next to the anterolateral wall of the left cardiac ventricle, in close contact with the pericardium but with a cleavage plane and no mass effect on the cardiac cavities, measuring 72mm * 53mm.
Enlargement of the neck mass on Valsalva maneuver observed in this condition limits the differential diagnoses to laryngocele and superior mediastinal cyst
or tumor, branchial cyst, cystic hygroma, and cavernous haemangioma.
The Mullerian mediastinal cyst
was first described by Hattori in 2005 .
Cystic lesions in mediastinum may be clinically diagnosed as mediastinal abscess, benign teratomatous cyst, and true mediastinal cyst
. Due to its common cystic nature, mediastinal ectopic pancreas currently can be suggested as one of the items in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal cystic lesions.
The differential diagnosis includes laryngocele, pharyngocele, branchial or superior mediastinal cyst
, pulmonary apical bulla and, less commonly, a vascular malformation.
In this group of patients (Patients 1 to 3, with mediastinal cyst
, retrosternal goitre and atrial enlargementS), definitive surgical correction should be performed urgently to restore airway patency.
The second patient had a prenatally detected posterior mediastinal cyst
traversing the diaphragm and communicating with the jejunum.
In both our case and that presented by Kostopoulos et al., Salmonella enteritidis most likely disseminated hematogenously to an isolated mediastinal cyst
. Interestingly, no immunocompromising condition was identified in either of those patients.
Neonates and young children often present primarily to the thoracic surgeons with cardiopulmonary problems from the mediastinal cyst
. [29, 30] The majority of patients present during the first decade of life with pain and myelopathy.
VATS has rapidly developed and widely extended its indications from surgery on the pleural surface, for example, bullae of the lung, mediastinal cyst
, biopsy of the lung and resection of the sympathetic nerve, to more difficult and complex procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, resection of esophageal carcinoma and solid mediastinal tumor, and even cardiac operations.