A federal report last year concluded efforts to save sagebrush habitat in the West were failing, with invasive plants such as cheatgrass and medusahead
on nearly 160,000 square miles (414,400 sq.
To achieve some control of returning medusahead
and starthistle, Schohr recommended that burned pastures should be grazed this spring in March-April and April-June, respectively.
Young et al.,  found that seedling establishment of medusahead
increased with [N0.sub.3] fertilization, was unaffected by [NH.sub.4] fertilization, and decreased when mineral nitrogen was immobilized.
What to look for: Medusahead
, Herb Robert, shining geranium, meadow knapweed, spurge laurel, garlic mustard, false brome, water primrose willow, lesser celandine, purple loosestrife, yellow and Maltese starthistles, yellow flag iris.
Key grass species controlled include cheat, downy brome, medusahead
, wild oats, volunteer wheat, and ripgut brome.
Influence of simulated burning of soil-litter from low sagebrush, squirreltail, cheatgrass, and medusahead
on water-soluble anions and cations.
(2015) found that combining forage seeding with other management approaches resulted in higher overall control of medusahead
(Elymus caput-medusae L.) than using conventional control methods (prescribed fire, grazing, etc.) in isolation.
Aggressive and unruly in appearance, medusahead
edges out native plants.
Prescribed grazing reduced medusahead
cover in years that did not have significant late spring rainfall.
Currently, EBCL's top weed priorities include yellow starthistle, Russian knapweed, saltcedar, Russian thistle, leafy spurge, hoary cress, perennial pepper-weed, spotted knapweed, medusahead
ryegrass, and rush skeleton weed.