For example, in the broadly distributed butterfly Lycaena tityrus, local adaptation drives the intensity of the immune response, as populations at high elevation show stronger melanization
immune response at colder temperatures, whereas populations at low elevations show stronger melanization
response at warmer temperatures (Karl, Hoffmann, & Fischer, 2010).
The larvae with a high degree of melanization
and lack of movement when touched were counted as dead.
Cell-mediated immunity in arthropods: hematopoiesis, coagulation, melanization
, and opsonization.
The infection results in tissue melanization
and is, therefore, generally referred to as shrimp black gill (sBG).
While Drosophila hematopoiesis results in the development of 3 unique cell types, crystal cells that specifically express PPO1, the protein responsible for melanization
, have demonstrated a protective effect against infection.
The biochemical 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) acts in several aspects of insect biology including circadian rhythms, neurotransmission, tanning of cuticle, immunity, sclerotization, melanization
, and wound repair in insects (Birman et al.
Gunde-Cimerman, "Hypersaline conditions induce changes in cell-wall melanization
and colony structure in a halophilic and a xerophilic black yeast species of the genus Trimmatostroma," Mycological Research, vol.
In addition, structural deformation and melanization
to the hyphae of fungi were observed (Figure 5), as the NPs resulted in the deformation of the hyphae via swelling or vacuolar expansion.
Wrzesniok, "Effect of tetracycline and UV radiation on melanization
and antioxidant status of melanocytes," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol.
Hemocytes include granulocytes, oenocytoids, and prohemocyte subtypes that are involved in phagocytosis, melanization
, and hematopoietic progenitors, respectively .
Osmotic adaptation of the halophilic fungus Hortaea werneckii: role of osmolytes and melanization
. Microbiology, 2007; 153: 4261-4273.
and morphological effects on antifungal susceptibility of Penicillium marneffei.