It has been proposed that the hypopigmentation is caused by decreased melanin production and altered melanosome
dispersal in reaction to Propionibacterium acnes.
These mutations affect melanosome
formation and cellular trafficking in other organs and also lead to oculocutaneous albinism, neutropenia, pulmonary fibrosis, and granulomatous colitis.
The cellular component was associated with keratin filament, melanosome
, and cytoskeleton.
Animal studies have demonstrated a role of melanosome
function in the disease mechanism, but the precise pathogenic role of these genes in humans remains to be determined.
Another interesting example of the effect of the rate of stem cell proliferation and cancer incidence is the relatively low incidence of melanoma in blacks which is inversely proportional to the degree of melanisation and has been ascribed to the diminished stem cell turnover in regions where melanocyte proliferation is inhibited by loss of cytoplasmic volume through melanosome
donation to adjacent keratocytes .
Differences in the melanosome
distribution within the epidermal melanin units and its association with the impairing background of leukoderma in vitiligo and halo nevi: A retrospective study.
showed that QS 1064 Nd:YAG laser destroyed melanosome
pigments with no change in the melanocytes number.
A possible dysfunction of melanosome
transfer in leprosy: an electron-microscopic study.
Nucleosome 20.31% Hydrolyase activity 6.25% Aerobic respiration 7.81% Regulation of cellular respiration 3.13% Oxygen binding 4.69% Protein transmembrane transport 3.13% Melanosome
3.13% Nucleosomal DNA binding 3.13% Retina homeostasis 3.13% Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity 3.13% Myelin sheath 3.13% Intermediate filament 3.13% Pigment granule 3.13% mRNA 5'-UTR binding 3.13% Response to mercury ion 4.69% Cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus 3.13% Cellular response to gamma radiation 3.13% Mesenchyme migration 6.65% Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 complex 4.69% NAD binding 7.81% (a) Note: Table made from pie chart.
(Table 1) showed that CYM upregulated the expression of the three melanogenic enzymes Tyr, Trp1, and Dct as well as cytoskeleton organization-associated genes, copper transport and most melanosome
transport genes such as thymosinbeta 10 (TMSB10) and ribosomal protein S3 (Rps3).
They can be hereditary or acquired and have many causes, including abnormalities in melanoblast migration, melanosome
development or transfer, changes in the numbers of melanocytes, or defects in melanin synthesis [1, 2].