The middle meningeal artery
(MMA) is the largest of the three arteries supplying the dura mater, the others being the anterior and the posterior meningeal arteries.
The trauma often involves the temporal lobe and leads to tearing of the middle meningeal artery
. It can also occur from rupture of the anterior meningeal artery
or the dural venous sinuses.
Finally, sequential right external carotid artery angiogram (Figure 4) revealed the hypertrophied superficial temporal artery supplying the outer portion of the tumor and the hypertrophied right middle meningeal artery
feeding the central tumor tissue with early blushing and delayed retention of contrast.
It is the weakest part of the skull owing to the relatively thin bone and is commonly used as a landmark for neurosurgery related to many structures within cranial cavity such as middle meningeal artery
and Broca's area (Escosa-Bage et al., 2002; Lindsay et al., 1991).
The most common location of epidural hematoma is temporoparietal region 66%) which occurs due to injury to the middle meningeal artery
. Other locations in which it can occur are frontal region due to anterior ethmoidal artery, occipital region having transverse or sigmoid sinus injuries and posterior fossa epidural hematomas (PFEDH) represent 5% of all cases of epidural hematomas 6,7 .
The best treatment for PA originating from IMA is the occlusion of the affected artery, by transarterial embolic agents, distally at the level of the middle meningeal artery
Furthermore, the vessel that supplied muscles at the cervical region and separated from the common carotid artery, the ascending pharyngeal artery and middle meningeal artery
also participated in the vascularization of the ganglion.
Meningiomas can cause a similar high density peripheral lesion with homogeneous enhancement, and they exhibit adjacent dural reaction, so-called "dural tail." A rare form of intraosseous meningioma can cause lytic bony changes with their blood supply, usually from the middle meningeal artery
, while the blood supply of a plasmacytoma could be from the external carotid artery, mainly from superficial temporal branch and muscular branches of the vertebral artery.
It has three branches: tentorial artery, dorsal meningeal artery
and the inferior hipophyseal artery.
The most common variations reported in the literature are agenesis of AICA or PICA, AICA originating from PICA, PICA originating from internal carotid artery, persistence of a primitive communicating vessel (presegmental artery) between anterior and posterior circulation, and PICA originating from posterior meningeal artery
Preoperative angiography revealed that the extremely vascular mass was supplied by branches of the left external carotid artery, including the meningeal branch of the occipital artery, the ascending pharyngeal artery, and the middle meningeal artery
. All three of these branches were successfully embolized with polyvinyl alcohol.