Panty liners can also be used for daily cleanliness, however they are not much suited for medium to heavy menstrual flow
during which they have to be changed on a frequent basis.
Tampons, an alternative to traditional sanitary towels, are designed to absorb the menstrual flow
after insertion into the female genitalia during menstruation.
This small, reusable silicone cup collects a user's menstrual flow
for up to 12 hours of leak-free protection.
Dysmenorrhoea is defined as difficult menstrual flow
or painful menstruation.
Menopause is official when there is no menstrual flow
12 months after the last period occurred.
Younger age, low body mass index, smoking, early menarche, prolonged or aberrant menstrual flow
, premenstrual somatic complaints, pelvic infections, psychological disturbance, genetic influence, and a history of sexual assault influence the prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea [3, 11].
A majority of girls had menstrual flow
for a period of 3-5 days, which was normal in volume.
Unlike traditional menstrual care products that use harsh dyes and absorb menstrual blood that can lead to feminine dryness and irritation, LENA sits comfortably in a woman?s body and collects menstrual flow
without disturbing a woman's natural balance.
One study found elevated endometrial expression of tissue factor (initiator of hemostasis) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (primary inhibitor of fibrinolysin) by progestin, whereas estradiol augmented the action of progestin during luteal phase and withdrawal of this may be the basis for menstrual flow
.  It is well known that onset of menstruation is preceded by sudden decrease in blood level of estrogen and progestin about 2 days before and cessation of bleeding occurs with regaining of estrogen levels.
Similar studies done in USA reveal change in the volume of menstrual flow
but there was no significant change in the hormonal level in women with or without history of tubal ligation10.
Three hundred and five (76%) of girls had a normal menstrual flow
sixty-eight (17%) had heavy flow and twenty- eight (7%) had scanty flow.
Contractions also expel your menstrual flow
, theoretically shortening your period.