In November, the merchant convoy
finally returned home, my grandfather's ship with temporary repairs.
Hindsight tells us that their battleships were empty of fuel--but at the time we saw them as a "fleet in being," which could create havoc if they got in amongst a merchant convoy
, protected by destroyers and light cruisers.
American sailor Jack Campbell was on a merchant convoy
off Scotland in 1944 when his relationship with Stephanie Batstone blossomed.
Serapis (44 guns) (1778), he was escorting a merchant convoy
off Flamborough Head, England, when he encountered the Bonhomme Richard (42 guns) under John Paul Jones (September 23, 1779) and put himself between the enemy and his convoy; Person had the better of the cannonade, but his ship was captured after fierce hand-to-hand fighting; although he was court-martialed, his conduct was upheld, and he was knighted (1780); held further ship commands until he retired (1790); appointed lieutenant governor of Greenwich Hospital (1800), he died in 1806.
He served on board the merchant convoy
ships during the war, risking his life to get vital food for this country.
It all began in the early morning of February 5, 1941, when the SS Politician was making its way out of Liverpool to join a merchant convoy
headed for Jamaica on a tortuous route that would take in Iceland, Greenland and the coast of America.
But with the introduction in April of merchant convoys
escorted by warships, there was a significant drop in shipping losses.
The Merchant Ship Fighter Unit was based at the Airport, to protect the essential chain of merchant convoys
The 88-year-old was among the thousands of Royal Navy sailors who risked their lives escorting merchant convoys
to Russia to protect them from the ever-present threat of deadly German U-boats.
On the water, there were increased attempts to protect the vital merchant convoys
from U-boat attack.
"Most of the ships were destroyers: small fast ships armed with guns, torpedoes and depth charges and used for guarding larger warships and merchant convoys
against submarine and air attacks".
The ease with which White moves from the operational and strategic dimensions of the war to the plight of merchant convoys
reflects an impressive understanding of both earlier scholarship and the documents that serve his narrative.