The MPV is formed by the superior mesenteric vein
and splenic vein, is located in the right anterolateral of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and connects to the PS lateral and down to the DV origin in an oblique course from left to right (Fig.
Superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula (SMAVF) is an abnormal connection between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein
The most common location of the aneurysm is in the main portal vein trunk, the junction of the superior mesenteric vein
and the splenic vein, or at the hepatic hilus; intrahepatic venous aneurysms are rare (4, 5).
The vascular structures and mesentery twisted clockwise (whirlpool sign) at the abdominal midline, and superior mesenteric vein
was located to the left of superior mesenteric artery (Figure 1b, c).
An imaging-based diagnosis of venous invasion was established when one of the following criteria were satisfied: 1) tumoral enhancement in the lumen of the vein, 2) tumor protruding through the course of a vein, and 3) distention of the vein due to extension of the gastric tumor Right and left gastric veins, aberrant left gastric vein (ALGV), right and left gastroepiploic veins, superior mesenteric vein
(SMV), short gastric veins, and the portal vein were evaluated for tumoral invasion (Figure 1).
Superior mesenteric vein
thrombosis is the difficult diagnosis for acute abdomen at initial time.
Inferior mesenteric vein
with the ascending branch of the left colic artery was close to the mouth of the sac.
According to this continuous progress, resections of the superior mesenteric vein
(SMV), portal vein (PV), or coeliac axis are considered as a safe and reliable technique when performed at high-volume centers [7, 8].
According to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, pancreatic cancer with superior mesenteric vein
(SMV) and/or portal vein (PV) involvement greater than 180 degrees is considered borderline resectable unless the portal venous flow can be restored .
PVT can be associated with thrombosis of the mesenteric vein
. Mesenteric vein
thrombosis may cause impaired drug absorption due to reduced mesenteric perfusion resulting from severe venous congestion .
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) currently defines a tumor in the head/uncinate process as BR if there is solid tumor contact with the superior mesenteric vein
(SMV) or portal vein (PV) of greater than 180 degrees, contact of less than or equal to 180 degrees with contour irregularity of the vein or thrombosis of the vein but with suitable vessel proximal and distal to the site of involvement allowing for safe and complete resection and vein reconstruction.
One recent metaanalysis demonstrated that 13.6% of pancreatitis had SVT, 6.2% had portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 11.2% had SplV thrombosis (SplVT), and 2.7% had mesenteric vein