Normal embryonic development was also including heart, liver, gut, and mesonephros
Presumably, it is due to CO2 accumulation or to hydronephrosis (1); the latter, as a result of mechanical obstruction when the mesonephros
starts working (3).
, and metanephros represent the three primitive kidneys, present during the various developmental stages of the human embryo.
According to the most accepted theory, the kidney reaches the adult location at the eighth gestational week followed by the superior accelerated migration of the metanephros and the delay in mesonephros
involution before completing the diaphragmatic development, that is, before the fusion of the pleuroperitoneal membrane.
Two sources for the precursors of fetal Leydig cells have been reported in the literature, viz., mesenchymal fibroblasts from the mesonephros
and mesenchymal fibroblasts from the gonadal ridge (Byskov, 1986; Buehr and McLaren, 1992; De Kretser and Kerr, 1994; Merchant-Larios et al., 1993; Nishino et al., 2001).
The embryonic kidney develops through three stages: the pronephros, the mesonephros
, which both will regress throughout development, and the metanephros, which forms the final kidney.[sup]
is supplied by about 30 lateral branches, which develop as segmental arteries from dorsal aorta extending from C6 to L3 segment forming a network called rete arteriosum urogenitale.
It is suggested that regression of mesonephros
, deceleration in the growth rate of the liver, and the enlargement of the abdominal cavity might be the triggering factors of the the intestinal return (3-9).
The embryologic explanation of these variations has been presented and discussed by Felix.[sup] According to him, the developing mesonephros
, metanephros, and gonads are supplied by nine pairs of lateral mesonephric arteries arising from the dorsal aorta.
The adult kidney is a mesonephros
. The nephrons consist of a glomerulus in the Bowman's capsule and a renal tubule that is divided into the following morphologically distinguishable segments: a neck segment; proximal tubule; thin, intermediate segment; early distal tubule; late distal tubule; and connecting tubule linked to the collecting duct (Uchiyama and Yoshizawa, 2002; Hillman et al., 2009; Kardong, 2012; Larsen et al., 2014) (Fig.
Like the mesonephros
, the skeletal system is also derived from the mesoderm, at approximately the same stage of development and at the same somite levels which are involved for the embryonic development of urogenital tract, which explains the skeletal abnormalities.
Conclusion: The proximal tubular and luminal diameters and epithelial height of the cells lining the proximal tubules of mesonephros
were affected by not only advancement in the mobile phones but also increase in the exposure time to the radiations.