These extremely low-level light emissions come from excited-state hydroxyls (OH*) and molecular oxygen originating primarily from a ~10-km-thick layer near the mesopause
(~90 km above mean sea level).
Furthermore, stable atmospheric boundaries like tropopause, stratopause, thermopause and mesopause
have similar vertical distributions at different celestial bodies in atmospheres of very different chemical compositions.
VVGOOGLING a runner Mesophere 9.15 Kempton The mesosphere - an 's' has perhaps floated off into space from the horse's name - is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the stratosphere and directly below the mesopause
. The stratosphere, mesosphere and lowest part of the thermosphere are collectively referred to as the middle atmosphere.
Most of the LTOP models have a top at approximately 3hPa, and 13 out of the 20 HTOP models have a top at approximately 80 km, which is the altitude of the mesopause
. Overall, in both the troposphere and the stratosphere, the number of vertical layers of the CMIP5 models is more than those of the CMIP3 models (Figure 1, ).
Watchorn, "Climate-monitoring CubeSat mission (CM2): a project for global mesopause
temperature sensing," in Proceedings of the Earth Observing Systems XVI, vol.
They form at the mesopause
at a height of 89km then fall to a height where the ice crystals become large enough to reflect the light of the rising or setting Sun.
Long-period variations of wind parameters in the mesopause
region and the solar cycle dependence.
They are measuring temperatures near the mesopause
, 87 km above Davis station in Antarctica.
These clouds, which are seen from the ground in summer after sunset or before sunrise at high latitudes, are unusual because they form in the mesopause
, at altitudes of 80 kilometers or more--far above where scientists expect water vapor and other cloud material from the earth to be able to reach.
This so-called GW drag is a controlling force at altitudes near the mesopause
, and GW drag near the tropopause and in the stratosphere, while secondary to Rossby wave drag, is still important for alleviating wind biases that impact weather forecasting and climate simulations (Alexander et al.