In situ video observations of two manefishes (Perciformes: Caristiidae) in the mesopelagic
zone of the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Larvae were separated into three ontogenetic groups according to the notochord flexion state (preflexion, flexion and postflexion) and classified as coastal or oceanic (coastal, epipelagic, mesopelagic
, epi-mesopelagic and demersal) according to the adult fish habitat following the classification given by Moser & Ahlstrom (1996).
By contrast, three dimensions will be required to describe the extended vertical habitat of the species that we classified as mesopelagic
I (blue sharks, shortfin makos) and mesopelagic
II (bigeye threshers).
Chaetopterus pugaporcinus is neutrally buoyant, and when encountered in situ, each specimen was fully inflated, floating in the lower mesopelagic
portion of the water column.
Without this exception, the rest of the IMA fish larvae species were of neritic affinity (different to fish larvae typically observed at offshore regions of the mouth of the Gulf of California) numerically dominated by the tropical mesopelagic
, like Benthosema panamense (Aceves-Medina et al., 2004; Gonzalez-Armas et al., 2008; Leon-Chavez et al, 2010).
Indicators of ecosystem status often consist of species with common properties such as foraging guild membership, spatial distribution, ecotype, or some combination of these (e.g., small planktivorous fish, migratory mesopelagic
fish, all sharks) (Fulton et al., 2005).
Many animals living at mesopelagic
depths (200-1000 m) have eyes efficient at capturing both the dim downwelling light and luminescence from other organisms (reviewed in Warrant and Locket, 2004).
Overall, pelagic species such as mackerel (11.01 ton [km.sup.-2]), jack mackerel (15.4 ton [km.sup.-2]), sardine (26.9 ton [km.sup.-2]), anchovy (39.1 ton [km.sup.-2]), and mesopelagic
fish (67.3 ton [km.sup.-2]) dominated the system (Table 2), representing 26% of [B.sub.T], while the combined biomass of demersal fish represented 0.1% of Bt.
Sebastes flavidus, shelf rockfish feeding on mesopelagic
fauna, with consideration of the ecological implications.
Indeed, this solution is nearly ubiquitous in nontransparent mesopelagic
species, particularly in crustaceans, fish, and squid (Young and Roper, 1976; Herring, 1977, 1985; Widder, 1999).
The ichthyoplanktonic taxocenosis found off Punta Angamos (Peninsula de Mejillones) showed a mixture of coastal and oceanic species (epipelagic, epimesopelagic and mesopelagic
Sickle pomfret and escolar are mesopelagic
species whose predators that include deep-foraging bigeye and albacore tunas, swordfish, and large sharks (Ward and Myers, 2005b).