DuChamp and Quichotte's stories are both, in their ways, tributes to Cervantes' epic quest for love and acceptance, full of journeys to redemption and understanding in a world that seems to have gone mad around them, and it's in this metafictional
journey that Rushdie's already witty and precise prose really comes alive.
Even with its scope (and its use of awkward metafictional
devices), 'Dolorosa' simply doesn't have the tension or sense of unrest one would hope for in a story set in the Spanish era, the Japanese Occupation, and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's presidency.
De Vries, however, is a comic novelist with metafictional
(3) Some useful definitions from the literary sphere include critic Patricia Waugh's observation that a metafictional
text 'self-consciously and systematically draws attention to its status as an artefact in order to pose questions about the relationship between fiction and reality' (4) and academic Mark Currie's view that such a text 'places itself on the border between fiction and criticism'.
The essays in Rizal+ inevitably add to what we learned of Rizal in elementary school days, mostly from Camilo Osias' Philippine Readers, supplement it with a kind of metaphysical or metafictional
knowledge of the hero, as it were, through astute scholarship and a doggedness to chase the image or idea to the depths.
A future biographer interviews a simulation of her subject--a possible Cold War Soviet spy--in "Sleeper." And the metafictional
play, "Three Shouts on a Hill," retells an Irish legend.
Raspe fades into the background, and in his place emerges a confusing array of voices, among them the metafictional
voice of the author, pontificating on writing and culture.
No amount of attention to the process of writing could enliven his characters; thus, while Unamuno employed the metafictional
mode--most famously in Niebla (1914) -, he did so only to serve his idealist and existentialist interrogation of the nature of reality and to explore art as a way to (re-)create and enhance reality.
Andrew's Brain (2014), Doctorow's last novel, is a very complex work, dense with cultural references and metafictional
hints about itself and the inescapable mediating role discourse plays in our understanding of reality.
Guillermo Rodriguez-Romaguera traces the impact of Cervantes's metafictional
work on Wes Craven's 1996 Hollywood blockbuster Scream and its several sequels.
Greene's novel not only offers metafictional
commentary by relentlessly referring to its own linguistic medium, but also firmly places language within the context of sacrament through clear parallels to the Catholic Eucharist.
The ur-text in Clotilde Landais's contribution is Alice in Wonderland and the filtering metafictional
text is Aliss by Patrick Senecal, using Gerard Genette's concept of the metalepsis, which is parallel with his time-jumping concepts of prolepsis and analepsis but involves not merely shifting the narrative backward or forward but out of the narrative timeline entirely.