Insemination in sows not in estrus can also increase the possibility of vulvar discharges due to low cellular immunity in the endometrium during the metestrus
phase (KAEOKET et al., 2003).
Smears were scored as follows: proestrus (P) contained primarily nucleated epithelial cells with no or few cornified cells, estrus (E) consisted of mostly cornified cells, metestrus
(M) contained epithelial cells with leucocyte attacks, and diestrus (D) consisted of few cells that were leucocytes with some rounded or cornified epithelial cells.
. This stage showed a mixture of all major cell types, neutrophils, cornified and nucleated cells as shown with toluidine blue stain (Fig.
The estrus cycle of mice is approximately 4-5 days, including proestrus, estrus, metestrus
and diestrus (15).
A study of Li found that nine lncRNAs were relatively highly expressed in multiple mouse tissues by qPCR, and lncRNA647, lncR147, and lncRNA274 were specifically highly expressed in ovary at 8 weeks and metestrus
. The expression of lncRNA274 and genes for follicular development were elevated and the number of ovulation increased after in vivo transfection.
The estrous cycle consists of four phases called proestrus, estrus, metestrus
and diestrus; each distinguished by the type and amount of vaginal epithelial cells, and the presence or absence of leukocytes in the vagina (Yener et al., 2007; Byers et al., 2012.).
Singh and Pandey observed that catalase activity in total ovary homogenate was highest in the metestrus
phase, declined in the oestrous and pro-oestrous stages, and reached the lowest levels in the diestrus phase .
3--The third stage is named metestrus
(nucleated, cornified Epithelial cells and leucocytes), lasts for 8 hrs.
Analysis of the estrous cycle on the challenge day showed that 48% SHAM rats were in metestrus
(n = 16), 24% in diestrus (n = 8), 14% in proestrus (n = 6), and only 14% in estrus (n = 6).
In all the studied females, the estrous cycle lasted 4 days and consisted of four phases: proestrus, estrus, metestrus
, and diestrus.
The female rats showed an irregular estrus cycle with a persistent estrus stage, an extension of metestrus
, and a large number of leukocytes in smears from the metestrus