This may be due to hypoxemia, methemoglobinemia
, or sulfhemoglobinemia (1).
Newborn organisms are very sensitive to methemoglobinemia
because they have an immature "methemoglobin reductase system" .
However, nitrite, an intermediate of nitrate reduction, carries the risk of toxicity and causing methemoglobinemia
(Zhou et al., 2012).
Prilocaine and lidocaine are classified as amide- type local anesthetics for which serious adverse effects include methemoglobinemia
. Although the hydrolyzed metabolites of prilocaine (o-tolu- idine) and lidocaine (2,6-xylidine) have been suspected to induce methemoglobinemia
Methylene blue is FDA approved for methemoglobinemia
In 2011 the FDA issued a warning that topical over-the-counter teething preparations containing benzocaine can lead to methemoglobinemia
, a rare but occasionally fatal condition that results in a large decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood.
Benzocaine and lidocaine induced methemoglobinemia
after bronchoscopy: A case report.
This process can lead to generalized lack of oxygen in organ tissue and a dangerous condition called methemoglobinemia
. Although nitrite converts to ammonia, if there is more nitrite than can be converted, the animal slowly suffers from a lack of oxygen.
Production of superoxide anion is increased in congenital methemoglobinemia
and methemoglobin reductase deficiency as well as acquired methemoglobinemia
Babies less than 6 months old should not be fed home-cooked beets, carrots, collard greens, spinach, or turnips, as this may cause methemoglobinemia
. a blood disorder in which an abnormal amount of methemoglobin, a type of hemoglobin, is produced.
The use of pnlocaine does warrant some additional caution since it has the potential to cause methemoglobinemia
in predisposed individuals.
Risks for methemoglobinemia
in infants (blue-baby syndrome) are greater when water supplies exceed this MCL for N[O.sub.3.sup.-]-N (U.S.