This is often triggered by administration of common general anaesthetics, including Halothane, Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, Desflurane and Enflurane (Campbell, 2015; Karlett, 1998) plus Succinylcholine (Lee & Wheeler, 1997; Redmond, 2001; Mitchell-Brown, 2012) and a newer medication Penthrox (Methoxyflurane
), used to reduce pain (MIMS, 2015).
For surgeries on mice, nitrous oxide was also used in combination with halothane (9%) as well as halothane alone (1%), whereas for rat surgical interventions no halothane use was reported, but sevoflurane (8%) and methoxyflurane
(7%) were used.
Among all eight relevant articles, six of them compared the efficacy and adverse events of fentanyl with other opioids such as morphine and methoxyflurane
and two of them compared the pain severity before and after fentanyl prescription.
Fasted (5 hr) mice were anaesthetised with methoxyflurane
at week 12, and liver and white adipose tissues were collected and fixed in 4% formaldehyde overnight before being incubated in 50% ethanol and embedded in paraffin.
Ziccone, "Halothane, enflurane, and methoxyflurane
in isolated human uterine muscle," Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol.
Paracetamol, opiates and other modalities such as ketamine and methoxyflurane
can be considered.
Neonatal BALB/c mice (20 individuals, 3 days old, Vital River Laboratories, China) were anesthetized with methoxyflurane
(1.5%, Hebei Institute of Medicine, Shijiazhuang, China) and immersed in 75% ethyl alcohol.
All the rats were anesthetized using methoxyflurane
prior to surgery.
Despite all of the interest and investment in developing inhaled analgesics for the management of breakthrough cancer pain and other acute pain indications, the only approved inhalation product for pain is Penthrox (methoxyflurane
), a halogenated ether repurposed for acute pain management.
In this series, Methoxyflurane
, Enflurane, Isoflurane were tried, but were not so popular.
United Kingdom-based Mundipharma International has signed a contract with Medical Developments International to establish an alliance to commercialise Penthrox (low dose methoxyflurane
) in Europe, it was reported yesterday.