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(2,6,8) In addition, there are fewer reports highlighting the use of cobalamin rather than plasmapheresis for presumptive microangiopathic anemia related to [B.sub.12] deficiency.
HUS is clinically characterized by microvascular thrombosis with consequent tissue ischemia and necrosis with renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic anemia. There are two distinct forms: (a) diarrhea-associated HUS, typically correlated with Shiga-like toxin-producing bacteria (STEC-HUS), and (b) atypical HUS (diarrhea nonassociated) which represents a frequent form of HUS in adults [7, 8].
Other authors (25) stated that a mild anemia may happen in PSS, which may have an iron-deficient component, usually normochromic and normocytic and hemolytic only if the microangiopathic anemia of hypertension and /or renal failure is present, and thought to be due to gastrointestinal blood loss, while in MCTD they found moderate anemia in 30-40% of cases.