Such plants are either in mesic habitats, such as cloud forests, or have microphyllous
foliage (Bruniaceae) to minimize transpiration.
Particularly, the microphyllous
scrub community covers an area of 19.5x[10.sup.6]ha in the lower portions of mountain slopes and especially in flatlands with alluvial soils (Granado-Sanchez et al., 2011).
Considering the potential effects of these animals on vegetation and that desert microphyllous
and rosetophyllous scrublands are the most widely distributed natural plant communities in the Chihuahuan desert, we aimed at determining livestock impact on plant species diversity and vegetation structure in these vegetation communities.
The canopy layer is irregular in height, usually between 7 and 12 m, its cover is sparse (50-60%) and is considered a clear microphyll evergreen forest; the leaves are mainly xeromorphic and mostly microphyllous
. In the group of constant species the macaguey (toad) is the main specie, and as subdominant there are lirio amarillo or suchel (Plumeria emarginata), ayua de sierra (Zanthoxylum cubense), chicharron (Drypetes mucronata), bone (Drypetes alba), yuraguana (Coccothrinax elegans) and Tabebuia bibracteolata.
In these ecosystems microphyllous
(small leafed) plant species and fleshy-fruited species with short life cycles are the pioneers during secondary succession (Skowno et al., 1999).
Although the species can dominate the low shrub stratum in some areas, sharing dominance with microphyllous
shrubs such as Larrea tridentata or Fouquieria splendens, in most localities, its population density is low compared with other species of Opuntia (i.e., 100 ind/ha, Mandujano et al., 2007).
The species with microphyllous
and nanophyllous leaves were abundant due to ecological conditions for these arid conditions.
These floras were of low diversity and dominated by microphyllous
elements (conifers and cycadophytes).
It grows in microphyllous
shrublands at 972-2500 m elevation and is associated with Fouquieria sp., and Agave spp.
211 The gaps that form in the forests of myrtle beech (Nothofagus cunninghamii) in Tasmania usually support scrubs of microphyllous
plants and shrubs that develop into secondary forests.
Two types of litter were used: the microphyllous
litter of the two ectomycorrhizal species, M.
The semi-deciduous forests that develop in Sierra Maestra below 500 m asl, i.e., in flat, hilly and premontane areas ("floor of semi-deciduous forest and scrub") change in mesophyllous and microphyllous
, according to the ecological conditions.