2013)--in the midlittoral
trochid Monodonta turbinata (Born 1780), Patella granularis (Linnaeus 1758), the North Sea limpet Littorina saxatilis (Olive 1792), the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka 1867), and the California sea hare Aplysia californica--obtained a greater OCR when organisms were exposed to warmer temperatures.
Macroalgal community structure was characterized for a high energy portion of the lower midlittoral, upper infralittoral zone of a rocky point on the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula.
A universal zone system (Stephenson & Stephenson 1972) was proposed for rocky shores which divide it into three major zones: supralittoral fringe (high shore), midlittoral zone (midshore), and infralittoral fringe (low shore).
On the contrary, adults of bigger sizes live well dispersed and inhabit turbulent waters at midlittoral fringe to 15 fathoms of depth (Chan 1994).
funiculosus is very well represented in all the series of sizes in the midlittoral, fluctuating between 3.
Four tidal levels or depths were represented by a number of rock-pile sites: upper midlittoral (2), lower midlittoral (4), upper infralittoral (3), and lower infralittoral (5).
In both the midlittoral to the infralittoral, ctenostomatids won about 55% of the encounters that had a decided outcome, but the proportion of ties increased from from 4% in the midlittoral to 58% in infralittoral.
Field experiments were used to examine the direct and indirect interactions that influenced succession in a midlittoral
rocky shore assemblage of algae, barnacles and limpets, in the northwest Mediterranean (Table 1).
Tukey's test showed that maximum abundance occurred closer to the lower part of the midlittoral
(levels 4, 5, and 6), decreasing smoothly toward both extremes of the beach in both sexes.
Herbivory and structure in a midlittoral
rocky community: a case in southern Chile.
The beach area was divided into four adjacent quadrats of 250 square meters, each with two contiguous vertical zones--a three-meter-wide midlittoral
zone and a one-meter-wide supralittoral zone.
A classic example of the effect of wave action on patch dynamics is found on the wave-swept shores of the Pacific Northwest where the California mussel, Mytilus californianus, is the dominant competitor for primary space on the midlittoral