Commercial [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose, voglibose, and miglitol
are currently used against DM, but many adverse effects have been observed such as abdominal pain, renal tumors, hepatic injury, diarrhea, and flatulence.
Acarbose, voglibose and miglitol
are the typical examples of carbohydrate hydrolyzing inhibitors used in clinical practice (Bailey, 2003).
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (including acarbose and miglitol
) delay breakdown of carbohydrates in the small intestine, and lower postprandial glucose and insulin levels.
The medication market has different pharmaceutical products of [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose that inhibits [alpha]-amylase and [alpha]-glucosidase enzymes (7), miglitol
and voglibose that inhibit [alpha]-glucosidase only (8-10).
The currently available [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors include acarbose (AB), voglibose (VB), and miglitol
Sample treatments include a-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs; acarbose, miglitol
and voglibose) to reduce the absorption of carbohydrates in the intestine and control postprandial hyperglycemia.
These drugs are divided into several groups according to their mechanisms as secretogogues (sulfonylureas and meglitinides), insulin sensitizers (biguanides and thiazolidinediones), and [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol
and acarbose) (7).
* Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), such as acarbose (Precose) and miglitol
(Glyset), block the absorption of ingested carbohydrates in the small intestine.
The two agents is this subclass are acarbose (Precose) and miglitol
In addition to diet and lifestyle, pharmaceutical molecules including sulfonylureas (which stimulate insulin release) and carbohydrate enzyme inhibitors, like acarbose and miglitol
, are used in monitoring type-2 DM.
 Acarbose and miglitol
should not be prescribed in individuals with renal impairment.
In consequence, a series of pancreatic [alpha]-amylase inhibitors are available in the market, such as acarbose, voglibose, and miglitol