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They produce two important types of hormones, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Within those groups, the two most important ones are Cortisol and aldosterone.
The adrenal cortex produces a variety of steroidal hormones, including mineralocorticoids (which help maintain electrolyte balance and blood pressure) and glucocorticoids (including Cortisol, which helps regulate body metabolism).
Excessive amounts of mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone), glucocorticoids (primarily Cortisol), and catecholamines (mostly epinephrine and norepinephrine, also called adrenaline) can interfere with blood pressure regulation.
(5,6,7) Choroidal stasis, inflammation, and ischemia due to dysregulation of regulatory proteins (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, epinephrine, norepinephrine) in the choroidal circulation leads to an increase in choroidal permeability.
The adrenal cortex also releases mineralocorticoids, which maintain sodium and potassium balance in the blood, thus ensuring proper regulation of blood circulation.
The three basic types are glucocortiods, mineralocorticoids, and the "sex" steroids or hormones that fit the steroid chemical picture.
The most common causes of endocrine hypertension are excess production of mineralocorticoids (primary hyperaldosteronism), catecholamines (pheochromocytoma), thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids (Cushing syndrome) (4).
From the outer to inner, the layers are: Zona Glomerulosa: Secretes mineralocorticoids. Zona fasciculata: Secretes glucocorticoids.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition with an incidence of approximately 1 in 12,500 Caucasian births.1 It is caused by the mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).2 Most of these conditions involve excessive or deficient production of sex steroids and can alter development of primary or secondary sex characteristics in some affected infants, children or adults.3 CAH is characterized by deficiency of one of the enzymes required to make cortisol - required for stress response, maintenance of blood pressure; aldosterone - required for salt retention; or androgens - for virilization of the fetus (rare form).
With respect to functionality, 8 (28%) secreted glucocorticoids, 5 (17%) secreted sex hormones, 2 (7%) secreted mineralocorticoids and only 2 (7%) secreted more than one type.
The result is inadequate secretion of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens.
Multiple promoters among which regulate the expression of the Ang gene: mineralocorticoids, elements of response to cAMP, steroid hormones, and elements responsible for the acute phase, among others, that are activated during the stages of stress in the cell that are unchained during the I/R process [28, 29].
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