Ultrastructure of the miracidium
of Echinostoma paraensei Lie & Basch, 1967 (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae).
Trematode eggs were on average 30 x 16 [micro]m sized, capped, and contained a miracidium
. Copro-antigens of Giardia spp.
must then pass through an intermediate snail host, before the next larval stage of parasite; the furcocercous cercariae emerges that can infect a new mammalian host by directly penetrating the skin (Soulsby, 1982, Bhatia et al., 2010).
, upon release from the egg, will infect a susceptible snail host and internally will continue to develop into sporocyst form, transforming into the redia where a mass of cercarial stages is enclosed.
, the sensitivity and specificity of a variety of diagnostic tests (questionnaires, reagent strips, egg filtration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antibody-based assays, miracidium
hatching test, and rapid diagnostic tests for S.
The twenty-six selections that make up the main body of the text are devoted to schistosoma egg, miracidium
of schistosoma, schistosoma sporocysts, cercaria of schistosoma, the alimentary tract of schistosoma, and many other related subjects.
In vitro metamorphosis ofthe miracidium
of Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) Ward, 1917.
The individual ovum is home to miracidium
larva with cilia that produce proteolytic enzymes which aid the eggs to move either towards the lumen of the bladder or towards the host intestine.
This includes temperature ranging from 23-26oC for development of eggs (Rowcliffe and Ollerenshaw 1960; Thomas 1883 ab) and maximal growth of snails (Kendall 1953) and humidity level upto 90 % caused by plenty of water available facilitates embryonation (Andrew 1999) emergence of miracidium
from eggs due to increased activity of cilia (Thomas 1883 ab) and liberation of cercariae from snails (Alicata 1938; Dixon1966).
, cercaria, metacercaria and mesocercaria (Esch & Fernandez, 1994; Esch, Barger & Fellis, 2002).
The sensitivity of these techniques is extremely higher, as positive PCR signals can be obtained from the tissue of a snail penetrated by a single miracidium