with the reality of federalism." (176) Later decisions by the Court supported Harlan's recognition, such as vis-a-vis constitutional expectations regarding persons qualified to issue arrest warrants (177) and preside over the trial of misdemeanants
The Davidson County Sheriff's Office Day Reporting Center (DRC) is designed for non-violent misdemeanants
and is considered an alternative to incarceration.
The other is the broad applicability of these collateral penalties to misdemeanants
and other minor offenders who in the past would have been spared the reduced legal status and stigma reserved for convicted felons.
force" under Griffith is to qualify misdemeanants
A dollar a day: Sentencing misdemeanants
in New York state.
For example, prior to 1980, most pretrial misdemeanants
could only be released by posting bail, regardless of their crimes.
Outcomes of federal misdemeanor defendants, moreover, may not accurately represent outcomes of state court misdemeanants
. In particular, because there are relatively few pro se federal court misdemeanor defendants, it is entirely possible that federal judges make more accommodations to ensure that the rights of those defendants are protected.
(16.) See RAFTER, supra note 7, at 81-82 (describing how the original reformatory population, consisting primarily of minor offenders, was severely diluted by felons and misdemeanants
who were again sentenced to local jails).
San Bernardino considers low-level felons as well as misdemeanants
. Among the four courts, the time between referral and the first court appearance varies from a few hours to three weeks.
Many counties and municipalities also incarcerate misdemeanants
. Few of these jurisdictions have defined threats to or requirements for security at correctional facilities, nor have many performed vulnerability assessments.
(200) A former New York City Assistant District Attorney described how early in his career a supervisor advised him to calm down because he was "only dealing with misdemeanors." (201) That same former prosecutor writes that "[t]he stakes for misdemeanants
were never high." (202) Putting to the side the insensitivity and arrogance of those remarks, one can only hope that prosecutors currently appreciate the havoc that misdemeanor arrests can wreak on people's lives.
(78.) In 2002, New York City instituted Operation Spotlight, which would focus attention on "chronic misdemeanants
" through specialized courts in all five boroughs solely to hear "Spotlight cases." Press Release, Off.