With the collapse of the planned economy in 1991, Russia proved to be not so much a developed as a misdeveloped
country, unable to sell most of its products in non-captive markets.
Switzerland is a developed country, whereas Armenia is borderline between developed and developing country, often characterized as a "misdeveloped
" country (under the Soviet System);
The latter have argued that colonized societies have been fundamentally underdeveloped, misdeveloped
, or unevenly developed as a result of colonization and imperialism and that this process must be understood as historical rather than natural or cultural.
To him, much of the old economy had been misdeveloped
into a "necroeconomy," a dead economy of value detraction that could not produce anything of value.