The second, often mistranslated as "aims of man," refers to the same set of three, sometimes with the addition of a fourth, moksa
or final liberation.
See algas Oka ja Moksa
joe alamjooksult, kulges Kama, Volga ja Seksna joge mooda Valgejarvele, edasi mooda Kovza, Votegra ja Suvari joge mooda ning Aanisjarve ja Laadoga jarve kaudu Soome lahele.
The fact that in Tantrism the sexual union of the partners is a mimetic act that emulates ('dramatizes') the primordial union of Shiva and Shakti or another divine couple to become one with these gods (moksa
) is confirmed many times in the academic literature (see, for example, Braginsky 2004:145 and Creese 2004:201).
The American freedom of "the pursuit of happiness" has largely come to mean the freedom to obtain what one desires (Foner 2013, 28), whereas the Buddhist freedom of moksa
(Sanskrit, "liberation") is a freedom from the constraining pull of desires themselves (McMahan 2008, 17).
He shows that Hindu texts advocate non-harm toward living beings, not only for the sake of attaining moksa
(liberation), but also because they have direct moral standing.
In fact, anyone searching for the predictable Buddhist key words (karma, maya, samsara, moksa
, nirvana, Theravada, Zen, sangha, guru, tantra, om [mani padme hum], Pure Land, and so forth) will find only a brief explanation, but a wealth of related terms that have to be chased down: the book is a masterpiece of cross-referencing.
While kaivalya is most often understood as liberation, Indian philosophical scholar Sthaneshwar Timalsina clarified that, "This term does not convey the same semantic resonance as moksa
, which literally means liberation.