Steps 3 and 4 evidence (i) whether the molecule used has the correct properties for being used in realistic circuits; (ii) the impact of the different technological choices (i.e., molecules, gate coupling) on the circuit behavior; (iii) the capabilities at circuit level offered by the different modeling features of the involved models, that is, the sensitivity to parameters and the capability to capture physical quantities, among which are the technological variations due to the immaturity and the extreme variability of molecular electronics
; (iii) the models computational requirements both in terms of simulation time and in terms of setting-up of all the data and parameters necessary when a new molecule or condition is taken into consideration.
At the interface between nanotechnology, chemistry, and physics, molecular electronics
seeks to fabricate nano-meter-sized devices under atomic control by developing novel bottom-up approaches, as opposed to the classical top-down approaches.
Understanding how molecules conduct heat will be crucial for "molecular electronics
," Dlott says.
Durham is, for example, the location for world-class work in photonics, cell biology, molecular electronics
and microsystems and is a leading player in the field of renewable energy sources with the development of wave power generation.
* Transcending Moore's Law with Molecular Electronics
Futurists envision that one day, computer chips with molecular electronics
may be self-assembled in a chemistry beaker with [10.sup.24] components and wires.
National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) in Maryland, where Aray is a guest researcher working on modeling of molecular electronics
for nanotechnology devices.
In addition to replacing inorganic semiconductors in more or less conventional device architectures, organic systems also are of interest in the more speculative, and potentially more revolutionary area of "molecular electronics
." Here, it is envisioned that the non-linear characteristics of individual molecules, or small ensembles, will provide the required device functionality, allowing low-cost chemical synthetic methods to, at least partially, replace multibillion dollar semiconductor fabrication lines in the production of nanoscale device structures.
About a dozen employees strong, ZettaCore takes the latter approach, in an emerging nanotechnology industry dubbed "molecular electronics
In contrast to work that's come out of molecular electronics
, where there have been a lot of two-terminal devices that would require entirely new architecture, carbon nanotubes can be used to build a conventional three-terminal CMOS device."
Inokuchi, 74, discovered that some organic compounds conduct electricity and became a pioneer in molecular electronics
by developing an organic semiconductor.
* "Molecular electronics
" and devices that "self-assemble" will become possible, as nanotechnology strives to imitate the way organic structures grow in living organisms.