Instead, Thoreau followed the monogenist
presumption that all humans comprised a single species with a single moment of origin.
He first gets into the black box of slavery by unveiling its scientific foundation; more particularly, the ongoing debate between monogenist
and polygenist conceptions of the origin of human races.
Lewis in his acclaim intellectual history on the Caribbean contends that the notion of "the monogenist
As Tattersall and DeSalle put it, "virtually everyone at the turn of the nineteenth century was a monogenist
, believing that all human beings had a common origin, belonged to the same species, and partook of the same essence" (p.18).
Epistemologically it was monogenist
(i.e., insisting that all modern races evolved from one source) and evolutionist, and it differentiated between "race" and "nation." Re grand scientific project of the Moscow school of liberal anthropology aspired to redescribe Russia as a historically formed community of biological relatives; hence its stress on establishing the degrees of kinship of the imperial "physical types." Politically, liberal anthropologists were evolutionists: the school's leaders contributed to major Russian liberal periodicals (such as Russkie vedomosti) and supported Constitutional Democrats in the Russian Duma.
Firmin was at the forefront of critical inquiry into the subject in the nineteenth century, as he advanced the monogenist
perspective on the evolution of humans when most European thinkers maintained a polygenist theory, which argued that the races evolved separately, not from a single source.
Although his Origin of Species was published in 1859, by 1837 Darwin had already formulated the theory that life had evolved and "the emergence of new species was the result of descent of modification." (35) It may be thus derived that Carlyle with his belief in a divine maker, who intended the slavery for the Negroes, belonged to the "monogenist
The latter becomes the focus of Darwin's Sacred Cause as the authors set out to demonstrate how deeply rooted Darwin was in the monogenist
culture of the Darwin-Wedgwood households (both Darwin's wife and mother were Wedgwoods).
The observation that these diverse hair types were marked, and therefore indicative of more intrinsic differences, led some theorists to challenge the prevailing monogenist
view that all peoples were descended from one common ancestor and instead advocate polygenesis.
For Morgan, and a number of his anthropological contemporaries, the explanation that could both explain this aspect of human difference while containing the distinctions within the monogenist
paradigm of the single human species was that the civilised family had a matriarchal communal origin, the central point of Engels' The Origin of the Family, Private ProperO, and the State (1884) (Hiatt 1996:60; Trautmann 1987: 2534; Wolfe 1999:73).
At least one book was written in 2007 that attempted to resuscitate the Pre-Adamite races (Mayer 2007.) Despite the popularity of polygenism in the 19th century, the most commonly held view for the origin of human races in America was monogenist
. The monogenist
view accepts only one Adam, but proposes that the difference races of men are descended from Noah.