The second criterion was the author's monolingual
and bilingual status.
The modules presented in Figure 1 and numbered with numbers 1 through 5 require linguistic data (monolingual
dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, translation rules, etc.).
Contributors in educational and applied linguistics point out the weaknesses in monolingual
theories and pedagogies in SLA, TESOL, and bilingual education.
One of the most pertinent points made by the volume is the rich potential of monolingual
sources for evidence of, and attitudes towards, Britain's languages.
So the vocabulary size is just one of the aspects where there will be a gap between a multilingual who knows a given language as one of a few languages and a monolingual
who knows the culture related to that language in a more comprehensive way.
Moreover, as our cultural landscape continues to change, educators must be critically cognizant of a new "special need," that of educating monolingual
children and families about other cultures, through diverse languages--mirrors of our cultural pluralism.
The dictionary types used include an online bilingual multimedia English-ASL dictionary (OBMEAD), a paper English-ASL dictionary (PBEAD), and an online monolingual
English dictionary (OMED).
Those who study a foreign language tend to demonstrate greater cognitive development and divergent thinking than monolingual
Bunta and Ingram (2007) also examined the acquisition of Spanish-English bilingual speech rhythms in children using vocalic and intervocalic nPVI values, and concluded that bilingual and monolingual
speakers differ in speech rhythms, particularly in the youngest participants, age approximately 4 years, although these differences diminished for older speakers.
Babies in monolingual
households lack these discrimination skills, Werker and her colleagues have found.
Interestingly, while brain scans showed similar progression of the disease in bilingual and monolingual
adults, those who knew more than one language were less likely to experience outward Alzheimer's signs, such as confusion, memory loss and difficulty with planning.
Additive bilingualism--the type of bilingualism where proficiency in one language constitutes a cognitive advantage for the mastery of another--has been equated with educational achievement; it has been suggested that balanced bilingual children academically do as well as or better than their monolingual
counterparts (Cummins, 2000).