And unlike its days of improvising, when it played monophonically
, Shimon is able to play harmonies and chords.
The parts differ musically, yet in all of them the text is clearly declaimed, in places monophonically
, sometimes the melodic line defocuses like when a calligrapher presses on the brush, at others the harmony unfurls to the full.
Oversimplifications of theories about infants and human identity (11), global religious practices of "all human cultures" with examples of Buddhists and Navajos (18), American TV cowboy songs (59), Suzuki violin training (30), African Venda practices and animal sacrifice (33), "native groups that sing monophonically
," (34) and an African-American description used to define the Amish (31) can appear more like a dutiful literature review rather than a helpful context for Amish music.
(26) Scholars have interpreted the lack of notated music as an indication that the performers sang the pieces monophonically
(that is, in a plainchant setting, which was the predominant musical style of worship), to improvised polyphony (two or more melodic lines), or that these singers knew a polyphonic version of the piece.