Template script and rotunda gothic script on flyleaves; square notation with F clef; monophony
; custos and bars are indicated.
The monastic statutes forbade figural music, that is, music involving song and instruments, yet besides chant the Franciscans performed at least monophony
and two-part music in the contemporary style, accompanied by the organ.
The original songs were performed largely in private quarters by individual ladies of the upper strata of society, and their subsequent appearance in a convent school adds the possible dimension of choral monophony
. Modern performance can recognize these venues, but often the locale of performance today is different, and can only approximate the original circumstances.
Such development was typically classified as a change from monophony
, that is, music for a single voice or part , to polyphony, in which two or more strands sound simultaneously, or to homophony in which there was a clear distinction between melody and accompanying harmony .
In our concluding remarks, we state that this concept does focus on integration, but that this does not mean that the aim is to achieve monophony
(rather the opposite), and that the idea of transparency must be handled with care.
We know that the troubadour'ssongs were monophonic, and the monophony
of the genre sounds somber to amodern ear, even while the text is ribald or full ofjouissance.
The onset of colonialism around 1540 imparted a new musical texture with the introduction of the distinctively Western harmony (the combination of simultaneous notes to form chords, as opposed to monophony
, the basis of traditional Indian music).
Benjamin Braude has pointed to a "movement from medieval polyphony to modem monophony
" in the story's interpretation, naming the years 1589-1625 as the time when a broad range of alternative medieval ethnic geographies yielded to the familiar racialized concept of African Hamite enslavement ("The Sons of Noah and the Construction of Ethnic and Geographical Identities in the Medieval and Early Modern Periods," The William and Mary Quarterly 54, no.
Second, demand structure of industry positively modifies the relationship between power and dependence, particularly in the studied situation of a monophony
N'gensi's reasoning with Kaninda, however, interrupts the monophony
of Sergeant Matu's voice and makes him reconsider one of Sergeant Matu's deeds--the murder of a civilian boatman who is neither Yusulu nor Kibu--as an unnecessary atrocity similar to what the enemy has done to his family.
From Inferno's cacophony, through purgatorial monophony
, and to paradisiacal polyphony, each cantica retains a well-defined musical identity, which serves a specific purpose in the overall poetic strategy.