Molecular phylogenetic studies have made an important contribution in corroborating the monophyly
of some groups recognized in previous systems .
(2010) upheld the monophyly
of Loranthaceae, with the Schoepfiaceae and Misodendraceae families as sister groups.
We found no consistent support for reciprocal monophyly
between the Yaqui and Sinaloa catfishes, but this possibility was not rejected by the analysis.
of Aporocotylidae was not supported; however, those aporocotylids infecting principally marine and estuarine bony fishes clearly were monophyletic.
of both clades is well supported by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses (CHATROU et al., 2012).
The next branch with several (13) synapomorphies (85), (22-1), (25-3), (30-2), (32-7), (35-2), (36-4), (37-5) (383), (39-2), (40-2), (42-2), and (47-1) indicates the monophyly
Nevertheless, synapomorphic adult features for the subfamily have been elusive, and proposals regarding the monophyly
of the subfamily largely rested on the retention of presumed plesiomorphic character states, mostly in wing venation.
They also note that this provides strong evidence for arachnid monophyly
and a single shared terrestrial arachnid ancestor.
Notably, support for enteropneust monophyly
is moderate (65/0.99), and SH testing did not reject the alternative hypothesis (enteropneust paraphyly).
lupus demonstrated that North America, Europe and most of Asia populations represent a single mega-ESU, showing reciprocal monophyly
with allopatric distributions.
of the genus Osteopilus is supported by a 93% bootstrap value and a 0.99 posterior probability, although the relationships among species are not fully resolved (Fig.