Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to monosomy: terminal deletion, Partial monosomy


1. A chromosome having no homologue, especially an unpaired X chromosome.
2. A single ribosome.

mon′o·so′mic (-sō′mĭk) adj.
mon′o·so′my n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(Genetics) genetics the condition of lacking one member of a chromosomal pairing
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.monosomy - chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
chromosomal aberration, chromosomal anomaly, chromosonal disorder, chrosomal abnormality - any change in the normal structure or number of chromosomes; often results in physical or mental abnormalities
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The aim of such testing is to reveal an early state of genetic disorders such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), and monosomy X (Turner syndrome).
The CMA of the proband revealed two CNV: a loss of the entire chromosome X (~155 Mb) indicative of monosomy X and a 4.69 Mb copy number loss on 1q31 .2q31 .3 (bp 192, 715, 814 to 197, 401,180) (Figure 3).
The positive predictive value in this cohort was 95.2% for trisomy 21, 93.5% for trisomy 18, 77.9% for trisomy 13, and 86.7% for monosomy X.
No specific karyotypic abnormality is yet known to be associated with BPDCN, but six recurrent cytogenetic alterations involving 5q (72%), 12p (64%), 13q (64%), 6q (50%), 15q (43%), and monosomy 9 (28%) have been previously proposed by Leroux et al.
Cytogenetic analyses have reported trisomy 21, monosomy 5, and 5q deletion in AML in the context of familial platelet disorder.
For example, if a person is missing one of the chromosomes from a pair, this is called monosomy. An example of monosomy is Turner syndrome in which a patient is missing one chromosome and is characterized by short stature besides other difficulties.
If patients are not lost from infections, cytogenetic changes can occur such as G-CSF receptor mutations in 12% and monosomy 7 in 50%.
Particularly monosomy of chromosomes 14 and 22 as well as deletions of 1p are well known.
Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome (OMIM#158170) is a well-known disorder, a structural monosomy occurring with loss of a part of 9p of varying size.
For instance, monosomy of chromosome 3 and gain of 8q are often found in UMs.[15],[16] Multiple common driver mutations have also been identified in UM including BAP1 , EIF1AX , GNA11 , GNAQ , and SF3B1 .[17],[18],[19] Specifically, BAP1 , EIF1AX , and SF3B1 mutations are mutually exclusive during UM progression, and BAP1 mutations showed the most significant association with UM metastasis.[20] Meanwhile, epigenetic alteration such as changes in microRNAs and long ncRNAs also plays a role in the development and metastasis of UMs.[21],[22]