Al-Bermani, "Single-equation yield surfaces for monosymmetric
and asymmetric sections," Engineering Structures, vol.
Set (E) comprised columns with a monosymmetric
Study by Zhang and Tong [9, 10] showed that the Wagner effect of bending could not precisely calculated by beam elements used in ANSYS and ABAQUS, and a proposed thin shell element model is superior to the beam element for flexural-torsional buckling analysis of thin-walled beams and beam-columns of monosymmetric section and tapered section.
The eigenvalue buckling loads through shell model are smaller than those of beam model since the Wanger's effect in moment of thin-walled member cannot be admitted into beam model, leading the numerical results bigger than the real, which is not suitable for buckling analysis for a member with monosymmetric section.
However, asymmetric flowers--without a symmetry plane--are different from monosymmetric flowers.
Monosymmetric flowers with their single symmetry plane can be described as having two mirror symmetrical halves (divided by the symmetry plane) or as having two unequal sides (divided by a plane at right angles to the symmetry plane).
In monocots, the basalmost clade, Acorus, is monosymmetric
by a stronger development of the lower half of the flower (Buzgo & Endress, 2000).
Chasmogamous flowers, the subject of our study, are complex in form, nectarless, monosymmetric
, and consist of three blue and three showy, yellow stamens (Figs.
It was unexpected to find a family with highly elaborated, strongly monosymmetric
, or even asymmetric flowers that have a spur in Myrtales and, even more, as sister to Myrtaceae s.str., which have relatively unelaborated, polysymmetric flowers.
Pollen flowers with some feeding stamens and only a small number of larger pollinating stamens are characteristically arranged in two opposing groups in a monosymmetric
pattern (see Endress, 1999; Vogel, 1978).