(73) Unlike Anglo-Saxon devotions that reflected the contemporary Monothelete controversy around the humanity of Christ, (74) the new forms of devotional image that emerged in the thirteenth century presented a more personalised spirituality focusing on the Virgin Mary that had become increasingly popular.
Unlike orthodox Christian doctrine, which held that Jesus Christ had two wills, human and divine, the Monothelete heresy argued that Jesus had two natures but only one will, divine.
The measure of this opposition in Islam, as well as the character of relations in the Muslim God-man "system" in comparison to the Monothelete model, needs future detailed investigation; this would require collaboration with a specialist in Islam.
Given the defeat of the Empire under Heraclius, and Byzantium's subsequent rejection of the Monothelete heresy and return to Orthodoxy, one may say that from a religious point of view (the discourse found in Maximus) further continuation of the existence of the Monothelete heresy as the Empire's official ideology was not pleasing in God's sight.
Significantly, Daley's revised reading of Leontius is confirmed by a work strongly indebted to the latter, Pamphilus' Diversorum Capitum seu Difficultatum Solutio.(52) This treatise does not allow of a precise dating; its author's account of tritheism, however, and his silence on the monothelete
and monenergist controversies of the seventh century suggest a terminus post quem of 557 (the year when John Ascoutzanges left his native town Apamea which is seen as the rise of tritheism(53)) and a terminus ante quem of 630.
About half of the studies deal with individual texts: the earliest two (|A piece of wisdom literature in Syriac' and |The laments of the philosophers over Alexander in Syriac') go back to Dr Brock's discoveries in the Mingana Collection of manuscripts in the 1960s, and the theme of discovery is continued down to two of the most recent (|A Monothelete
florilegium in Syriac', 1985, and |Two sets of monothelete
questions to the Maximianists', 1986).