Transmission of morbilliviruses
within and among marine mammal species.
Morbillivirus infections, with special emphasis on morbilliviruses
are phylogenetically divergent.
Raga, "A review of virus infections of cetaceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses
, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics," Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol.
Inhibition of in vitro leukocyte proliferation by morbilliviruses
. Journal of Virology, 76: 3579-3584.
Dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses
are genetically distinct from phocine distemper virus.
Massive mortalities in pinnipeds and cetaceans reaching epidemics of tens of thousands are caused by four morbilliviruses
evolving from the canine distemper virus (Aguirre et al.
Influenza A virus strains (Hinshaw et al., 1984) and morbilliviruses
(Lipscomb et al., 1994) not only cause sporadic mortality among individual cetaceans that become infected, but are also capable of causing widespread die-offs in susceptible populations of animals (Young, 1994).
Marine mammal mass mortalities Morbilliviruses
have emerged as an important factor in marine mammal epizootics and were implicated in mass mortalities involving bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the U.S.
These findings indicate that morbilliviruses
seem to be involved in the onset of Paget's disease, but their exact contribution to the viral infection is still not clear.
Routine immunohistochemical tests of the seal brain for morbilliviruses
, Borna disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus (7,8) and immunofluorescence analysis for rabies virus were performed by the Department of Consumer and Food Safety of Lower Saxony (Hannover, Germany).
are primarily lymphotropic and secondarily epitheliotropic.