The ascent of "addiction" occurred against a backdrop of continued use of a mix of terms and common interchange of, for example, "morphinism," "morphine habit," or "morphinomania" within the medical texts surveyed.
They divided into a similar way between those interested in physiological aspects such as "morphine and cocaine poisoning" and those that deepened the pathological issues--morphinism, "cocainism," or morphinomania. A major difference between Italy and Britain came in the professional ownership of the issue, which lay in the school of positivist criminology associated with the work of Cesare Lombroso and through forensic science.
" seized England as fashionable ladies held "morphine parties" during which they injected each other with quaint, specially designed syringes.
A dominant feature of this emergence was a shift in the way this problem was explained from the moral concept of habit to the scientific concept of morphinomania, and later addiction (Berridge, 1999; Hickman, 2004; Seddon, 2010; Valverde, 1998).
The method of abrupt withdrawal, which occupied an important position in the medical treatment of morphinomania, became problematized later in the 19th Century for constraining the freedom of the individual (Jennings, 1890; Mattison, 1892).