came incredible complexity, creating the animal, plant, fungi and algae kingdoms we see today.
One such key ETI is that from unicellularity to multicellularity
. The case study of the volvocine algae illustrates an attempt to understand this transition.
[5.] Rokas A (2008) The origins of multicellularity
and the early history of the genetic toolkit for animal development.
But at what level is adaptive design expected to manifest (gene, Organism or society) and what is its function Adaptation may manifest at multiple levels, And indeed new levels of adaptive individuality may evolve over time such as with the emergence of multicellularity
The evolution of the GPCR signaling system in eukaryotes: modularity, conservation, and the transition to metazoan multicellularity
. Genome Biol.
For example, photosynthesis originated independently at four different points in life's history, and multicellularity
arose several times in different classes of organisms.
Biologists and other scientists from the US, Europe, Brazil, Australia, and China cover chromosome replication, DNA repair, chromosome segregation, cell division, transcription and translation, RNA-mediated regulation, general and regulatory proteolysis, the MreB cytoskeleton, membrane proteins, the cell wall, sporulation, biofilms, multicellularity
and social behavior, and competence and transformation.
sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity
, and the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes," Paleobiology, vol.
Heterogeneity contributes negatively to anticancer therapies since multicellularity
may favor the emergence of subclones or subpopulations of cells that are refractory to both traditional or target therapies and even to radiotherapy.
[31.] Ibraimov AI (2004-2005) The origin of condensed chromatin, cell thermoregulation and multicellularity
. Complexus 2: 23-34.
Developmental expression of transcription factor genes in a demosponge: insights into the origin of metazoan multicellularity
The origins of multicellularity
: a multi-taxon genome initiative.