Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism, and Multipartyism
Enough stakeholders remained convinced by this argumentation to continue funding and participating in it until 2003, when the president's party introduced an omnibus bill in parliament offered the carrot of a return to multipartyism
in return for MPs also voting in favour of lifting the two-term presidential limit.
By this term I do not mean to indicate the multipartyism
that claims to be democratic.
Both countries share commonalities due to their colonial history and their adoption of single-party politics and later multipartyism
On the importance of veto players in political systems see George Tsebelis, Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism
, 25 BRIT.
1995) Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presedentialism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism
Mainwaring, Scott (1995), "Presidentialism, Multipartyism
, and Democracy," Comparative Political Studies 26(2): 198-228.
Tanzania has been on a fairly steady trajectory of democratic consolidation since it adopted multipartyism
h was the coming of multipartyism
in 1990--together with the years of structural adjustment and privatization--that triggered unprecedented forms of social tension (Akindes 2000; Losch 2000) and made national citizenship, with its exclusionary implications, the pivotal issue around which Ivorian politics started to turn.
This all changed in the 1990s with political liberalization, multipartyism
, and the expansion of autonomous women's organizations in Uganda and Africa more generally.
1995), "Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentariarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism
," British Journal of Political Science 25(3): 289-325.
In fact, the dynamics of the Indonesian polity of the mid-and late 1950s seemed to fit perfectly with the theory developed by Sartori, who argued that atomised multipartyism
invariably strengthens centrifugal tendencies in party systems.